Know more about Indian education system? Part -1


Long ago, India had an Indian education system called Gourkra. It was a system in which a person trying to learn visits the teacher’s house (called Guru) and asks him to teach. When the teacher accepts you as a student, you stay at the teacher’s house and help with various things. Not only does this create a strong bond between the teacher and the student, but the student is also taught a lot about running a family. We teach children what they want, from Sanskrit to the Bible, from mathematics to metaphysics. The student stays at the teacher’s house for as long as the student wants, or until he thinks he has taught everything the teacher can teach. All learning was close to nature and life and was not limited to remembering any information.

For the first time in the 1830s, Thomas Babington brought a modern school system to India along with English. The curriculum was limited to “modern” subjects such as science and mathematics, eliminating the need for metaphysics and philosophy. Classes are limited to classrooms, and there is no connection with nature. Also, the close relationship between teachers and students has been lost.

The Uttar Pradesh (Indian State) Higher Education Commission was the first committee to be established in India in 1921 and was responsible for Gwalior ,  Rajptana and Central India. In 1929, the Rajputana Higher Education Commission was established. Later, committees were set up in several states. However, in the end, organizational reforms were carried out in 1952, and the name was changed to the Central Secondary Board of Education (CBSE). All schools in Delhi and some areas are now under the jurisdiction of the Commission. The role of this committee was to determine the curriculum, textbooks, exam systems, etc. of all jurisdictions. Today, thousands of schools are under the jurisdiction of the Commission in India and in many countries, including Afghanistan and Zimbabwe.

General compulsory education for all children aged 6-14 was a dream of the new government of the Republic of India. It is clear from the fact that it is incorporated as a policy in Article 45 of the Constitution. However, this goal is far from being achieved even after more than half a century. However, recently the government has admitted negligence that primary education is a fundamental right of all Indian citizens. Pressure from economic growth and a serious shortage of skilled talent must have forced the government to take such steps. Government spending on school education in recent years has accounted for about 3% of GDP, which is rated very low.

The most notable is the National Minimum Common Guidelines (NCMP) by the Government of the United Progressive Union (UPA). The notices are as follows: (a) Gradually increase spending on education to about 6%. (B) Educational purpose tax on all local allocation taxes to cover increased spending on education and improve the quality of education. (C) No one shall be denied education due to financial delay or poverty. (D) Provide the right to education as a basic right of all children aged 6-14 years. (e) Generalize education through key programs such as the National Education Strategy (Sarva Siksha Abhiyan) and food supply. ” 

About Indian School system

India is divided into 29 states and seven so-called “Union Territories”. The state has an elected government, whereas the Union Territory is directly governed by the Government of India, and the Secretary of each Union territory is appointed by the President. Due to this structure of India, school education was a state challenge in the first place — that is, the state had full authority in developing and implementing education policies. And the role of the Government of India (GoI) was limited to coordinating and developing higher education standards. The situation changed with the 1976 constitutional amendment, and education is now a so-called joint jurisdiction . School education policies and plans are proposed by GoI at the national level, but the state government has considerable freedom in implementing the plans. In national level Policies are announced regularly. The Central Advisory Board for Education (CABE), founded in 1935, has since played a leading role in the development and oversight of policies and plans in education.

There are national institutions that play an important role in formulating policies and plans. Called the National Education, Research and Training Institute (NCERT), it is preparing a national curriculum framework. Each state has an equivalent organization called the State Education, Research and Training Institute (SCERT). These institutions are basically organizations that propose educational strategies, curriculums, pedagogical schemes, evaluation methods, etc. to the  education department. SCERT generally follows the guidelines developed by NCERT, but has considerable freedom in implementing the education system.

The National Education Policy of 1986 and the Action Plan of 1992 envisioned providing adequate quality, free compulsory education to all children under the age of 14 by the 21st century. The government has promised to allocate 6% of gross domestic product (GDP) to education, half of which will be spent on primary education. Spending on education as a percentage of GDP increased from 0.7% in 1951-1952 to about 3.6% in 1997-1998.

The Indian school system has four stages: Early Elementary (6-10 years old), Late Elementary (11-12 years old), Higher (13-15 years old), Late Higher (17-18 years old).  The upper semester is divided into three grades, and the second semester is divided into two grades. Students learn most of the common curriculum (except for regional differences due to their mother tongue) until the end of high school. Some specialized education is also possible at the late high level. Students across the country must learn three languages ​​(ie English, Hindu, native), except in regions where their native language is Hindi and some groups described below.

There are three main trends in school education in India. Two of these are coordinated at the national level, and one of them is under the jurisdiction of the Central Secondary Board of Education (CBSE), which is essentially a central government that has regular transfers and needs to be transferred across the country. It was for the staff’s children. Many “central schools” (called Kendriya Vidyalayas) have been established for this reason in all major cities across the country. These schools follow a common schedule so that even if they transfer to another school one day, there is little difference in what the students are taught. In these schools, one subject (history, geography, sociology of civilians) is always taught in Hindi, and the other subjects are taught in English. Also, textbooks published by NCERT are used in all these schools. In addition to these government-run schools, there are many private schools in the country that follow the CBSE syllabus, even with different textbooks and schedules. Also, in the lower grades, there is a certain amount of discretion in what is taught. CBSE has 141 related schools in 21 foreign countries, mainly meeting the needs of local Indians.