- Historical background of universities in Germany
Higher education in Germany has a long history, dating back to the establishment of the University of Heidelberg in 1386. After that, the establishment of universities such as Cologne and Erfurt will continue. At that time, Germany was not a unified nation as it is today, and the background to the establishment of universities was different. Nor was higher education like him gaining a large number of students, and its function remained limited.
It can be said that the foundation of the university in Germany today was laid down by Humboldt’s establishment of the University of Berlin in 1810. Humboldt advocates the basics of the current university, including the integration of education and research in the university, academic freedom, and university autonomy, and this idea has become a leading university model to date. There is.
The current system of higher education in Germany relies on the system developed in West Germany after World War
II. The university system developed in West Germany has an extremely decentralized system that reflects the educational and cultural policies of each state under the “cultural federalism” that limits the involvement of the federal government. Matters that need to be coordinated have been left to the Council of Culture Ministers (KMK). However, this system was inadequate to meet the subsequent rapid expansion of demand for higher education and the tight financial demand. In the mid-1950s, the federal government’s involvement in higher education increased, with a focus on finance. With the establishment of the Academic Council in 1957, federal and state-level consultations began. And in 1969, the amendment of the Basic Law, the constitution of West Germany, allowed the Commonwealth to be involved in higher education.
In response to this trend, the Federal Higher Education Charter Act was enacted in 1976, creating a framework for higher education common to all states. By 1979, the higher education legislation of each state was to be amended to comply with this Charter Act. After this, each time the Charter Law is revised, the higher education-related laws of each state will be revised to comply with the Charter Law. This Charter Act will also help integrate the higher education system in the former East Germany region in the 1990 reunification of East and West Germany. After the unification of the states in the former East Germany region, it was decided to reconstruct the higher education system in line with the Charter Law.
Thus, the legal system that regulates higher education institutions in Germany has a framework for higher education stipulated by federal-level law called the Charter Law, and the laws and regulations of each state that constitutes the federation specifically stipulate higher education in each state. It became a composition to do. However, the federal framework is actually a mere ghost, as there are no detailed provisions in the Federal Charter and there is little influence on the individual higher education system design by each state government.
- Current higher education institutions and installation formats
Higher education in Germany can be broadly divided into higher education institutions (universities, vocational colleges, colleges of technology) and vocational training institutions called vocational academies. Of these, the latter includes the Vocational Academy (Berufsakademie), which is different from the higher education institutions in Japan and is specialized in the acquisition of occupational skills. Therefore, in the following, he will be dealt with by Hochschule, which is regarded as a higher education institution.
(1) Sogo University
Universities classified as general universities in Germany have a long history and provide education in a wide range of specialties, and are regarded as traditional universities. Originally called’Universitaeten’in Germany, the university has a faculty of arts and has traditionally been granted the authority to confer a doctoral degree and the authority to confer a university teaching qualification, both customarily and legally. Have. Universities that belong to this category can be broadly divided into two types: universities that have developed based on traditional academic fields such as science and theology, and universities that have developed from technical universities that specialize in the field of natural sciences. However, in each case, the faculty structure is different and does not necessarily cover all academic fields.
In addition, the comprehensive higher education institution “Gesamathochshule”, which once existed only in Hessen and Nordlein Westfalen, has the functions of traditional universities and technical colleges / specialized universities in recent years. As with traditional universities, the name “university” was given, and the Gesamathochshule typology virtually disappeared.
(2) University of Education
To become a gymnasium teacher in Germany, it is necessary to graduate from a general university. The university of education here has a special teacher training institution that provides basic education for specific purposes other than gymnasium, and there used to be nearly 100 schools. After that, more than 30 of them were reorganized into educational universities, and the others were integrated into general universities. In addition, the university of education itself has continued to be integrated into a comprehensive university, and currently only his six schools remain as independent educational universities.
(3) University of the Arts
Higher education institutions in the arts field such as music, painting, modeling and cinema are classified as art colleges. These range from universities that specialize in painting and modeling, universities that specialize in music, etc., to universities that integrate several fields.
(4) Theological University
Theological education is a traditional academic field that has been conducted since the early days of universities in Germany, but apart from the theology department in traditional universities, there are universities in Germany that mainly focus on theological education established by churches. There is. Currently, there are 13 church-based theological universities throughout Germany. Some theological universities are capable of conferring doctoral degrees and have the authority to confer teaching qualifications, and play a certain role in theological education and research.
(5) General technical college / vocational university
In Germany, there are many general technical colleges and specialized universities. These were based on and evolved from educational institutions that once provided vocational training. While general universities provide education in a wide range of specialized fields, general technical colleges and specialized universities are narrower and often provide practical and practical education. However, there are some that can be awarded a PhD, such as Hanover Veterinary College, which will be described later.
(6) Administrative technical college / vocational university
Universities in this category are positioned as higher education institutions with special education for federal and state government agencies in Germany. While the universities I have seen so far are open and open to accept applicants from the general public, most of the colleges and universities are aimed at the staff of government agencies, and the students are government officials. It is characterized by the fact that it is composed of those selected within the institution.